الانتاج الحيواني

منتدي علمي يهتم بالانتاج الحيواني و كل مل يتعلق بالمهنة في السودان بهدف توفير كل المعلومات العلمية و البحوث المتعلقة بنشاط الانتاج الحيواني كما يسعي لخلق علاقات اجتماعية بين رواده
 
الرئيسيةالرئيسية  مكتبة الصورمكتبة الصور  س .و .جس .و .ج  بحـثبحـث  المجموعاتالمجموعات  التسجيلالتسجيل  دخولدخول  

شاطر | 
 

 FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
dr.altahir mohammed
عضو جديد
عضو جديد


الدولة :
الجنس : ذكر
عدد المساهمات : 2
نقاط : 6
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/05/2011

مُساهمةموضوع: FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE    الجمعة يونيو 03, 2011 8:45 pm

INTRODUCTION

1

In many parts of the world, the poultry industry occupies a leading role among
agricultural industries, as it is the main supplier of animal protein for human population.
Hot weather is a common problem in tropical countries such as Botswana with summer
temperatures above 30 oC. The detrimental effects of a hot environment on the
performance of poultry have been well documented. Heat results in decreased feed
consumption and increased water consumption. As temperature rises, the bird has to
maintain the balance between heat production and heat loss, and so will reduce its feed
consumption to reduce heat from metabolism. Research demonstrated that feed
consumption is reduced by 5% for every 1 ؛C rise in temperature between 32-38؛C. At
high temperatures, heat production in birds decreases while heat dissipation increases.
The main pathway of heat dissipation for birds under hot environment is respiratory
evaporation, especially when ambient temperatures approach the body temperature.

Poultry production in Botswana as in other hot regions suffers significant losses every
year because of heat stress, especially from sudden heat waves, which usually occur
during summer. For instance, extremely high ambient temperatures were experienced in
Botswana in the first quarter of the year 2007, which resulted in economic losses to the
poultry farmers. During this period temperatures approached 40oC most of the time. The
value of losses due to heat stress could not be estimated in this paper.

In poultry production, heat stress can be described as acute or chronic. Acute heat stress
refers to short and sudden periods of extremely high temperature, whereas chronic heat
stress refers to extended periods of elevated temperature. Chronic stress has deleterious
effects on birds reared in open-sided houses mainly through reducing feed consumption
and increasing water consumption. Most of the reduction in feed consumption is due to
reduced maintenance requirement. In broilers, growth rates, feed efficiency and carcass
quality are negatively affected. Again, prolonged periods of elevated ambient
temperature increase the broilers’ time to reach market weight and increase mortality. In
laying hens, heat stress leads to a decline in egg production and egg quality, as well as,
shelf life of eggs is shortened. In breeders, high ambient temperature coupled with high
humidity decreases fertility resulting in low hatchability. During the heat stress period
the increase in body temperature has a negative effect on gamete formation and the
fertilization process. The purpose of this paper is to review the effects of heat stress on
poultry performance and feeding strategies that can be used by producers to alleviate
heat stress.







SOME RESPONSES OF BIRDS TO HEAT STRESS

2

As ambient temperature increases above comfort zone (also thermoneutral zone,
chickens devote less time to walking, standing or resting (Figure 1). When exposed to
high temperatures, domestic fowls may splash water on their combs and wattles in order
to increase evaporative cooling from these surfaces. Heat stressed birds also spend
relatively less time engaging in social behaviour and in changing posture. Also, the
wings droop and are held slightly away from the body to enhance cooling. In a natural
environment, birds will look for a shady and cool area.




















Figure 1 Heat stressed broilers

Birds are heat stressed if they have difficulty in achieving a balance between heat
production and body heat loss. Figure 2 shows that at thermoneutral or comfort zone,
birds can lose heat at a controlled rate, whereas above critical temperature they lose heat
actively by panting. Panting increases with increased ambient temperature. If heat
production exceeds maximum heat loss either in intensity or over long periods of time,
birds may die. Temperature increase by 4oC above 41oC will give rise to death in
broilers.






Lower
Critical
Temperature





Upper
Critical
Temperature





Maximum
heat
loss





Death
from
heat

3

fast
painting,
physical
tiredness


Birds can’t
control body
temperature

Thermoneutral
Zone
-normal behaviour
regulates heat
loss

Slow
panting Heat related
welfare
problem
probable


Welfare
problem
exists



Increasing ambient temperature
Figure 2 The response of birds to increasing temperature

Source: Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (2005)

FEEDING STRATEGIES
Minimizing heat stress is a vital part of having a profitable flock. As mentioned earlier,
during hot weather birds reduce feed consumption resulting in some nutrients becoming
deficient. To encourage feed consumption during heat stress various feeding strategies
are employed in many tropical and subtropical environments which are outlined below.

INCREASE NUTRIENT DENSITY OF THE DIET
It is recommended that the energy content of the diet be increased during hot weather.
The use of supplemental fat is suggested. Dietary fat increases palatability of feeds and
reduces the amount of heat increment that is produced during its utilization in the body.

INCREASE DIETARY PROTEIN
In hot weather the need for maintenance energy is much lower than at an ideal
temperature and birds respond by eating less. With the reduction in consumption, there is
often a reduction in intake of essential nutrients such as protein, essential amino acids,
minerals and vitamins. When this reaches a critical level, the result is reduced egg size,
shell thickness and egg production in laying hens.

To ensure that layers do not suffer nutritional stress of hot weather, it is recommended
that protein content of feed should be increased from 16% to 17-18%. It is contended that
increasing dietary protein content would cover the requirements for isoleucine and
typtophan, while methionine and lysine can be supplemented with synthetic compounds
provided that they are cheaper than natural sources. There is, however, fear that
increasing dietary protein might be detrimental to the bird as more heat is produced
during its utilization that may well overload heat dissipation mechanisms (i.e., panting,
blood circulation etc.). Therefore, improving overall balance of the diet by amino acid
supplementation appears to be more effective than increasing protein intake.





FEEDING CALCIUM CARBONATE OR OYSTER SHELLS

4

Calcium content of the diet should be adjusted according to anticipated level of intake,
such that each bird consumes the right amount per day. For laying hens, top dressing
feed with oyster shell or large particulate limestone is beneficial and has the added
advantage of stimulating feed consumption. Limestone and oyster chips may be provided
at a rate of 625 g per 100 hens.

FEEDING MANAGEMENT
Reduced feed consumption is the main cause of poor performance at high temperatures
and the feeding practices suggested below are reported to improve performance of birds
under heat stress.

Ensure good physical quality of feed (crumb, pellets or mash) to encourage
appetite. If there is enough floor space, extra feeders should be added.

Feed should not be stored for longer than two months, especially in summer to
reduce the possibility of mycotoxin build up.

Encourage eating at cooler times of the day, i.e., early morning or in the
evening. Feeding birds at cool times enables birds to make up for what they have
not eaten during the day. Laying hens increase their calcium intake during the
evening as eggshells are normally formed during this time.

Remove feed 4 to 6 hours prior to an anticipated heat stress period. Birds should
not be fed or disturbed during the hottest part of the day.

Dim the lights while feeding – using low light intensity during periodic feeding
reduces activity that reduces heat load.

SUPPLEMENTS (MINERALS AND VITAMINS)
Imbalances in acid-base balance occur in heat stressed birds. Therefore, inclusion of
various compounds in the diet or water is a common practice to alleviate the adverse
effects of heat stress. These include sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), potassium chloride
(KCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and vitamin C (ascorbic
acid). Sodium zeolite and aspirin are also beneficial in reducing the effects of heat stress
in laying hens. In Botswana, the majority of commercial poultry farmers administer
Phenix stresspac via drinking water to alleviate effects of heat stress on poultry. Ascorbic
acid and NaHCo3 appear to be the most popular electrolytes used in tropical and
subtropical poultry production.

Stressors such as disease and heat stress may increase the chickens’ need for vitamin C.
During heat stress the chicken is not able to synthesize enough vitamin C to meet
physiological demands, hence the need for mineral and vitamin supplementation.
Chickens require vitamin C for amino acid and mineral metabolism as well as for
synthesis of hormones. Vitamin C is also involved in the synthesis of the sex hormones


5


such as testosterone, which is essential to the reproductive performance of males.
Supplementation of vitamin C in drinking water at 40 milligrams per bird per day is
reported to give beneficial effects in broilers. In laying hens, 20 milligrams per litre of
water is recommended. Also, aspirin in soluble liquid form can be used for its antipyretic
(cooling) effect at the rate of 0.3 grams per litre of water.

Research has shown that sodium bicarbonate at high temperature stimulates water and
feed consumption as well as contributing to improved weight gain. Sodium bicarbonate
provides an alternative source of sodium that assists with litter control by providing drier
litter and a healthier living environment. The addition of 8 grams of sodium bicarbonate
to the 100 litres of drinking water (or 35 grams per 25 kilograms) can be useful in heat
stressed broilers to stimulate water consumption (Butcher & Miles, 2003. For broiler
breeders, 0.05 to 0.30% are reported to give beneficial results (Naseem et al., 2005).

Conclusion
During heat stress feed intake is depressed while water intake is increased. The decline in
feed intake leads to poor bird performance. To alleviate the effects of heat stress, dietary
manipulations are necessary, as these can help reduce metabolic heat production and
maintain nutrient intake. It is also necessary to minimize bird activity during the hottest
parts of the day in order to lessen the heat burden.


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
الانتاج الحيواني :: مجالات الاإنتاج الحيواني :: إنتاج و رعاية الدواجن-
انتقل الى: